Definition Source
Aboveground biomass Living vegetation above the soil, including stem, stump, branches, bark, seeds, and foliage.

Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,

DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Activity‐Shifting Leakage Forest Carbon activities that directly cause carbon‐emitting activities to be shifted to another location outside of the project boundaries cancelling out some or all of the project’s carbon benefits. One example would be a plantation project that displaces farmers and leads them to clear adjacent forests. See "Leakage." Land Use, Land‐Use Change and Forestry. IPCC, 2000—Robert T. Watson, Ian R. Noble, Bert Bolin, N. H. Ravindranath, David J. Verardo and David J. Dokken (Eds.) Cambridge University Press, UK. pp375.
http://www.ipcc.ch/ipccreports/sres/land_use/index.php?idp=263#s5‐3‐3‐1
Adaptation The adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory, autonomous and planned adaptation. Appendix 1 Glossary. In Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof,J.P., van der Linden, P.J. & Hanson, C.E. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. p. 976
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/annexessannexes‐glossary‐a‐d.html
Adaptive Management A philosophy that accepts that management must proceed even without complete information. It views management not only as a way to achieve objectives, but also as a process for probing to learn more about the resource or system being managed. Learning is an inherent objective of adaptive management. Adaptive management is a process where policies and activities can adapt to future conditions to improve management success. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Additionality The requirement by which, under the Kyoto Protocol and sound voluntary market standards, carbon credits will be awarded only to project activities where emissions reductions are "additional to those that otherwise would occur", i.e. additional reductions compared to the "baseline scenario". "Glossary", Ecosecurities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Addressing safeguards Ensuring that a coherent body of policies, laws, regulations (PLRs), and associated institutional arrangements, are in place to deal with the potential benefits and risks associated with REDD+ actions, and in doing so, enabling the application of the Cancun safeguards in the country context and to meet country safeguard goals.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards
and

UN-REDD Benefits and Risk Tool (BeRT) v2: User Guide

Afforestation Afforestation is the direct human‐induced conversion of land that has not been forested for a period of at least 50 years to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human‐induced promotion of natural seed sources. UNFCCC, as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) UNFCCC. Glossary of CDM Terms. EB41. 2008.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Agroforestry Agriculture incorporating the planting or conservation of trees. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Allocation The allocation of emissions permits or allowances among greenhouse gas emitters to establish an emission trading market. The allocation of emission permits / allowances can be done through grandfathering (based on past emissions) or the auctioning of permits. "Glossary", Ecosecurities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Allometry The study of the relationship between size and shape of organisms; in forestry, generally the relationship between tree diameter, height, crown size and biomass. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Allowance An authorization to emit a fixed amount of a pollutant (e.g. one ton of CO2e). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Allowance Trading Basics." Clean Air Markets. 14 Apr. 2009. 19 September 2010.
http://www.epa.gov/airmarkt/trading/basics.html
Annex-I, Annex-B Countries/Parties The signatory nations to the Kyoto Protocol that are subject to caps on their emissions of greenhouse gases and committed to reduction targets – countries with developed economies. Annex I refers to the 36 countries identified for reduction in the UNFCCC while the Annex B is an adjusted list of 39 countries identified under the more recent Kyoto Protocol. Annex B countries have their reduction targets formally stated. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
Anthropogenic The term used to distinguish naturally occurring greenhouse gas emissions from ones that result from human activity.​ (It is also referred as human induced). "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009.
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Anticipatory adaptation Adaptation that takes place before impacts of climate change is observed. Also referred to as proactive adaptation. Appendix 1 Glossary. In Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. & Hanson, C.E. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. p. 976
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/annexessannexes‐glossary‐a‐d.html
Assigned Amount (AA) and Assigned Amount Units (AAUs) The total assigned amount of greenhouse gas that each Annex B country is allowed to emit during the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. An Assigned Amount Unit (AAU) is a tradable unit of 1 metric ton of CO2 equivalent. (t CO2e). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version 1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Assisted (Accelerated) Natural Regeneration (ANR) The term used to describe management actions taken to enhance the natural processes of forest restoration, focusing on encouraging the natural establishment and subsequent growth of indigenous forest trees, whilst preventing any factors that might harm them. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Auditor A recognized, qualified and independent professional who evaluates which of the individual CCB Standards criteria are satisfied by the project in question. Based on this determination, the project may earn CCB Standards approval or, in exceptional cases, achieve Gold Level status. Given that investments in carbon offset projects are likely to take place before projects are initiated, it is important that ex ante (i.e., 'beforehand’) validation assessments are performed, such as through the use of the CCB Standards. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Autonomous adaptation Adaptation that does not constitute a conscious response to climatic stimuli but is triggered by ecological changes in natural systems and by market or welfare changes in human systems. Also referred to as spontaneous adaptation. Appendix 1 Glossary. In Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. & Hanson, C.E. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. p. 976
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/annexessannexes‐glossary‐a‐d.html
Avoided Deforestation This occurs when land that would have been demonstrably deforested is not, because of a change in policy, funding, actions, goals, etc. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009.
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Avoiding planned deforestation (APD) The reduction in GHG emissions by stopping deforestation on forest lands that are legally authorized and documented to be converted to non‐forest land. This REDD practice can occur in degraded to mature forests. APD project proponents must provide the verifier with evidence showing that the project area was planned to be converted. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18, 2008b. Pg 14.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20 for%20AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Avoiding unplanned frontier deforestation and degradation (AUFDD) The reduction in GHG emissions by stopping deforestation/degradation of degraded to mature forests at the forest frontier that has been expanding historically, or will expand in the future, as a result of improved forest access, often through construction of roads. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18, 2008b. Pg 14.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Avoiding unplanned mosaic deforestation and degradation (AUMDD) The reduction in GHG emissions by stopping deforestation/degradation of degraded o mature forests occurring in a mosaic pattern. Such deforestation/degradation typically occurs where population pressure and local land use practices produce a patchwork of cleared lands, degraded forests, secondary forests of various ages, and mature forests; where the forests are accessible; and where the agents of​deforestation/​degradation typically are present within the region containing the area to be protected. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b. Pg 14. http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Baseline Scenario In seeking to measure whether greenhouse gases have increased or decreased, it is necessary to have a known previously emitted amount (often connected to a baseline date or year), against which to make a comparison over time. This is often referred to as the "baseline scenario" or "baseline", i.e. expected emissions if the emission reduction activities were not implemented. In the case of REDD, the main options are historical baselines (average emissions during a past period), modeled baselines (spatially explicit ‐ e.g., land use models – or non-spatially explicit process models – e.g., econometric models), and negotiated baselines. "Glossary", Ecosecurities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2, "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNU‐IAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009.
Basket of Gases The six greenhouse gases listed in Annex A of the Kyoto Protocol, together constituting a "basket" in which Kyoto commitments are denominated. They are: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Belowground biomass The living biomass of roots greater than 2 mm diameter. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Benefit-sharing mechanism The principles, model and processes developed and applied to distribute benefits, both direct and indirect, of project activities, including project funding, between different participants and stakeholders. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Biodiversity The total diversity of all organisms and ecosystems at various spatial scales (from genes to entire biomes). "Appendix I: Glossary". IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4‐wg2.pdf
Biomass The total mass of living organisms in a given area or volume; dead plant material can be included as dead biomass. "Appendix I: Glossary". IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4‐wg2.pdf
Biomes A major and distinct regional element of the biosphere, typically consisting of several ecosystems (e.g., forests, rivers, ponds, swamps) within a region of similar climate. Biomes are characterized by typical communities of plants and animals. "Appendix I: Glossary". IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4‐wg2.pdf
Biotrade Those activities of collection/production, transformation and commercialization of goods and services derived from native biodiversity (genetic resources, species and ecosystems), under criteria of environmental, social and economic sustainability. Biotrade Website‐ Definitions and Concepts:
http://www.biotrade.org/docs/biotrade‐definitions.pdf
Bubble An informal term referring to a provision in the Kyoto Protocol (Article 4, para. 1) that allows a group of countries to aggregate their emissions and emissions targets, and strive to meet the latter jointly. The European Union, through its Emission Trading Scheme, has utilized this provision. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Cancun safeguards

When undertaking [REDD+] activities…the following safeguards should be promoted and supported:
(a) That actions complement or are consistent with the objectives of national forest programmes and relevant international conventions and agreements;
(b) Transparent and effective national forest governance structures, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty;
(c)  Respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and members of local communities, by taking into account relevant international obligations, national circumstances and laws, and noting that the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples;
(d) The full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders, in particular indigenous peoples and local communities, in the [REDD+] actions…;
(e) That actions are consistent with the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity, ensuring that the [REDD+] actions…are not used for the conversion of natural forests, but are instead used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, and to enhance other social and environmental benefits;
(f)  Actions to address the risks of reversals;
(g) Actions to reduce displacement of emissions.

UNFCCC Decision 1/CP.16, Annex I, paragraph 2

Carbon Buffer The amount of carbon credits, determined by risk analysis or the rules of a particular standard, which are set aside and not commercialized to ensure validity of carbon credits from a project in the event of leakage or impermanence. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Bundling A combination of several small‐scale project activities to form a single project activity or portfolio under the CDM in order to decrease transaction costs per unit of emission reductions. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Business‐As‐Usual (BAU) Scenario The land use and emissions profile for a forest carbon project area prior to intervention, serves as a bench mark to measure the impact of REDD actions. Also referred to as "baseline." "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Canopy Cover See 'Crown Cover'  
Cap and Trade An emissions trading system, which involves the buying and selling of emission allowances, where total emissions are limited or "capped". The Kyoto Protocol is a cap and trade system in the sense that emissions from Annex‐B countries are capped and excess permits can be traded. The Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is also a cap and trade system where organizations sign up to a legally binding reductions policy. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2, "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐ Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington, Virginia.
Caps Caps can be defined as legally binding limits to emissions from a country, sector, or organization "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Carbon Accounting The tracking of changes in carbon pools associated with human‐induced sources and sinks of greenhouse gas emissions. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Carbon Benefits The quantity of emissions avoided or carbon sequestered above the business‐as-usual scenario, after appropriate deductions are made for leakage and impermanence. Usually measured in tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e). "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Carbon Biosequestration The storage of carbon by plants, trees and other flora, which absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while they grow, release oxygen, and store the carbon. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Carbon Carrying Capacity (CCC) The term used to describe the mass of potential carbon stored in a forest ecosystem under prevailing environmental conditions and natural disturbance regimes, but excluding human induced disturbance. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Carbon Dioxide Equivalent (CO2e) Not all greenhouse gases warm the atmosphere equally, some gases (such as methane) have a greater global warming potential, or warming effect, than carbon dioxide. To account for this, the term CO2e is used and means that greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide can be converted, or normalized, to the equivalent amount of CO2, based on their relative contribution to global warming. This provides for a single, uniform means of measuring emissions reductions for multiple greenhouse gases. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Carbon Market Transactions for the sale of permits, reductions or offsets together comprise the carbon market. In fact, Carbon dioxide is only one of the several greenhouse gases that can be 'traded’. There is still no single, unified international market for emission reduction purchases. Instead, there are various markets, in operation around the world, which can be classified as either 'regulatory’ or 'voluntary’ markets and which interact with one another in different ways. See Carbon Trading "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Carbon Offset Credits issued in return for a reduction of atmospheric carbon emissions through projects such as the provision of renewable energy to replace fossil fuel energy, or reforesting cleared land to create a carbon sink. By paying for such emission reducing activities, individuals and organizations can use the resulting credits to offset their own emissions, either voluntarily or under the rules of most emissions trading schemes. One offset credit is equivalent to an emission reduction of one metric ton of CO2e. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
Carbon Pool (Reservoir) A system which has the capacity to accumulate or release carbon. Examples of carbon pools are forest biomass, wood products, soils, and atmosphere. The units are mass (e.g., t C). IPCC, as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) IPCC. IPCC Special Report: Land use, Land‐use Change, and Forestry. IPCC. 2000.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Carbon Rights Carbon rights refer to the claims on the benefit streams from carbon pools, for example, the benefit from a specific parcel of forest. Where a market exists for GHG emissions reductions carbon rights may have a financial value. Carbon rights may also define the management responsibilities associated with a specific area of forest. Issues concerning carbon rights include how the rights are defined, how they work in places where land ownership is unclear, and whether legal institutions are strong enough to protect the rights. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications "Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Carbon Sinks Reservoirs or locations that sequester or store a greater amount of carbon dioxide than they release. Major carbon sinks include forests and oceans. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Carbon Source A carbon pool (reservoir) can be a source of carbon to the atmosphere if less carbon is flowing into it than is flowing out of it. It is the opposite of a sink. IPCC, as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation."(Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) IPCC. IPCC Special Report: Land use, Land‐use Change, and Forestry. IPCC. 2000.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Carbon Stock The quantity of carbon in a carbon pool. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. "Terms and Definitions for the National Reporting Tables for FRA2005." 2005. FAO Corporate Document Repository. 2 July 2009.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/ae156e/AE156E03.htm#P236_10121>46 Gupta, R.K. & Rao, D.L.N. 1994. Potential of waste lands for sequestering carbon by reforestation. Current Science, 66, 378–380.
Carbon Stock Enhancement A component of a REDD Plus strategy that could include both the restoration/ improvement of existing but degraded forests and increase of forest cover through environmentally appropriate afforestation and reforestation. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Carbon Trading or Emissions Trading A sale or purchase of 'permits’ or allowances’ (i.e. AAUs) to emit greenhouse gases (GHGs); or certificates that prove a certain reduction in emissions from a particular activity beyond what would otherwise have been the case (i.e. 'business as usual’ emissions); or certificates that indicate a certain amount of actual emissions have been 'offset’ somewhere else, through for example, carbon sequestration. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Certification A phase in the certification process of a CDM or JI (Voluntary) project when permits are issued on the basis of calculated emissions reductions, verified by an accredited third party. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) The technical term for the output of CDM projects. A CER is a unit of GHG reductions that has been generated and certified under the provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Clean Development Mechanism. One CER equals one ton of carbon. Two special types of CERs can be issued for net emission removals from afforestation and reforestation CDM projects: (i) temporary certified emission reduction (tCERs); and (ii) long‐term certified emission reductions (lCERs) "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Chronosequence A sequence of related soils or vegetation that differ from one another in certain properties primarily as a result of time as a soil-forming factor or succession, respectively. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Clarifying safeguards Identifying and documenting a more detailed elaboration of each of the seven broad principles embodied in the Cancun safeguards in terms of their substantive content. This may comprise country-specific thematic, criteria, indicators or narrative statements, in relation to the REDD+ actions comprising the national strategy or action plan.  Also referred to as ‘interpreting’, ‘specifying’ or ‘unpacking’ safeguards.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

and

Meridian REDD+ Safeguards: Practical Considerations for Developing a Summary of Information
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) A facility created under the Kyoto Protocol, which allow Annex I countries to finance emissions reducing projects in developing countries that are party to the Kyoto Protocol then to use the resulting 'certified emissions reductions’ ('CERs’) to offset their own emissions. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Climate Change Mitigation The reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to achieve stabilization of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere and subsequently a cessation of further warming. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Climate Service Reduction or avoidance of greenhouse gas emissions, or removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere through carbon sequestration, measured in metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
CO2e See Carbon Dioxide Equivalent  
Co‐benefits The benefits arising from REDD schemes (other than reducing GHG emissions), such as alleviating poverty, protecting the environment, enhancing biodiversity, improving forest governance and protecting human rights. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Commitment Period The period of time in a regulatory greenhouse gas mitigation scheme during which countries are required to reduce emissions by a specific amount. The five‐year Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period is scheduled to run from calendar year 2008 to calendar year‐end 2012 ("First Commitment Period"). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Community Forest A community forest is a forest that is managed collectively by local people, usually with timber and non‐timber forest product extraction. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Compliance The achievement by a Party when it meets its quantified emissions limitation and reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Compliance (Regulatory) Market The market for carbon credits used to reach emissions targets under a regulatory regime. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington, Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Conference of the Parties (COP) The term used to describe the regular meeting of state parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This is the body with authority to take decisions under the Convention. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Conference of the Parties acting as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP) This is the meeting of state parties under the Kyoto Protocol and the body with authority to take decisions under the Protocol. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Conservation The preservation, management, and care of natural and cultural resources "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Conservation Easement A legal agreement between a landowner and a conservation organization or government agency that permanently limits a property’s uses in order to protect the property’s conservation values. Triangle Land Conservancy. "Glossary of Land Conservation Terms and Techniques." Triangle Land Conservancy. 24 Nov 2008. 2 July 2009.http://www.triangleland.org/landowner/glossary.shtml
Controlled (or 'prescribed’) burning Intentional and controlled fires in bush land or forest designed to prevent more intensive, uncontrolled forest or bushfires. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Corrective Action Request (CAR) The formal document which details non‐compliance with the requirements of the certification scheme. It also specifies actions that must be taken to achieve compliance. "Glossary" Forestry Stewardship Council,
http://www.fsc.org/glossary.html?&tx_datamintsglossaryindex_pi1[idxchar]=C
Country approach to safeguards

A country- (primarily government-) led process to respond to international REDD+ safeguard requirements (UNFCCC Cancun safeguards and other safeguards as appropriate), in a way that is harmonious with national policy goals, by building on existing governance arrangements.  These governance arrangements used to operationalise the Cancun (and other) safeguards, comprise three core elements:

  1. Policies, laws and regulations (PLRs) which define, on paper, what needs to be done in order to support implementation of REDD+ actions in a manner consistent with Cancun (and other) safeguards, i.e. how safeguards are being addressed. PLRs are primarily codified statutory ordinance, but can also include corporate environmental and social responsibility policies, industry standards and customary norms of indigenous peoples and local communities. 
         
  2. Institutional arrangements - the mandates, procedures and capacities to ensure that the relevant PLRs are actually implemented in practice, i.e. how safeguards are beingrespected.  Such arrangements are typically institutionalised within public, private or civil society sectors, but may also involve arrangements to strengthen the individual capacities of citizens, including, including indigenous peoples and local communities, to implement and enforce relevant PLRs.    
  3. Information systems which collect and make available information on how REDD+ safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout REDD+ implementation.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

Crown Cover The percentage of the surface of an ecosystem that is under the tree canopy. Also referred to as 'canopy cover’ or just 'tree cover’. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Customary rights 'Customary rights’ to lands and resources refers to patterns of long-standing community land and resource usage in accordance with Indigenous Peoples’ and local communities’ customary laws, values, customs, and traditions, including seasonal or cyclical use, rather than formal legal title to land and resources issued by the State. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Dead Wood The term used to describe all non‐living woody biomass not contained in the litter, either standing, lying on the round, or in the soil. Dead wood includes wood lying on the surface, dead roots, and stumps larger than or equal to 10 cm in diameter or any other diameter used by the host country. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Deciduous The term used to describe certain trees or shrubs that shed leaves annually or periodically. (not evergreen) "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Deforestation Station, as defined by the Marrakech Accords, is the direct human‐induced conversion of forested land to non‐forested land (with less than 10% crown cover). KAROUSAKIS, K. and COFFEE‐MORLOT, J. as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) Financing Mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: Issues in Design and Implementation. Paris Cedex 16, France: OECD. Jan 2007.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Degradation (or forest degradation) The term used to describe the condition of a forest that has been reduced below its natural capacity, but not below the 10 percent crown cover threshold hat qualifies as deforestation. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATIONRESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. (Primary source) In the context of the Kyoto Protocol, as stipulated by the Marrakesh Accords, cf. paragraph 1 of the Annex to draft decision‐/CMP. (Land Use, Land‐use Change and Forestry) contained in document FCCC/CP/2001/ 13/Add.1, p.58.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Designated National Authority (DNA) An appointed authority necessary for the implementation of CDM projects. The DNA issues the Letter of Approval (LoA) needed for registration of a project. A project will need both a host country approval as well as investor country approval. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Designated Operational Entity (DOE) A domestic legal entity or an international organization accredited and designated by the CDM Executive Board. The DOE validates and requests registration of a proposed CDM projects activity and verifies emission reductions of a registered CDM project activity. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Direct Seeding The establishment of trees on deforested sites by sowing seeds rather than by planting nursery‐raised saplings. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
DOM Dissolved organic matter comprises carbon compounds in water solution, generally from decomposition of plant and animal tissues in soils. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Domestic funding Funding reported by REDD+ countries that is spent in-country for REDD+. Glossary. 'Voluntary REDD+ Database’. 2011 REDD+ Partnership.
http://reddplusdatabase.org/glossary
Double Approval Process The VCS approval process which requires any project methodology to undergo two independent assessments by different validators. The first assessment shall be carried out by a validator or verifier accredited for the VCS Program and appointed by the project proponent. The VCS Secretariat, acting on behalf of the VCS Board, shall choose a different VCS Program accredited validator or verifier to carry out a second assessment. Both assessments shall cover all relevant VCS Program requirements. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b. Pg 13.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Economies in Transition The industrialized countries listed in Annex I or Annex B that are undergoing the process of transition to a market economy. These include some former Soviet republics, including Russia, and several central and eastern European countries. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Ecosystem degradation A gradual or persistent process of loss of capacity of an ecosystem to provide ecosystem services. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Ecosystem rehabilitation The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed through the reparation of ecosystem processes, productivity and services, but without re-establishing the pre-existing species composition and structure. For example, inter-planting trees on cropland using naturalized species to improve soil quality. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Ecosystem services The benefits people obtain from the environment. Ecosystem services are the transformation of natural assets including soil, plants and animals, air and water, into things that we value. They can be viewed as provisioning such as food and water; regulating, for example, flood and disease control; cultural such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits; or supporting, like nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions for life on earth. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
Ecosystem The interactive system formed from all living organisms and their physical and chemical environment within a given area. Ecosystems cover a hierarchy of spatial scales and can comprise the entire globe, biomes at the continental scale or small, well‐circumscribed systems such as a small pond. "Appendix I: Glossary". IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4‐wg2.pdf
Effectiveness of the REDD+ program Is defined as the extent to which the emissions reductions and other goals of the program are achieved Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Efficient Is defined as achieving the target with minimum cost, effort and time. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) A binding purchase agreement signed between buyers and sellers of carbon credits. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Emissions Source A source of greenhouse gas emissions Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Emissions Trading see Carbon Trading  
Employment A community member is considered as employed by the project where they are contracted to work directly on project activities in return for compensation, financial or otherwise. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Endemic species Species for which the entire global range is restricted to the site, the region or the country (the level of endemicity must be defined). Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Enrichment Planting The process by which one plants trees to increase the population density of existing tree species or increase tree species richness by adding tree species to a degraded forest. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Equity and equitable Are defined as just, impartial and fair to all parties. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option = com_content&view=...
European Union Allowances (EUA) The tradable allowance unit under the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EUETS) "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) The Trading Scheme within the European Union. The first compliance phase is from 2005 to 2007, while the second compliance phase covers the period from 2008 to 2012, equivalent to the First Kyoto Commitment Period. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Evergreen A plant that retains green foliage throughout the year. A plant that retains green foliage throughout the year.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Ex ante crediting The issuance of credits in expectation of future emission reductions (not eligible under Kyoto). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Ex post crediting The issuance of credits after independent verification of emission reductions. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Ex-ante accounting A method of accounting for emissions reductions in which money is given up-front for the guarantee that a given activity will be carried out and emissions reductions will occur in the future. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Extensive agriculture System of crop cultivation using small amounts of labor and capital in relation to area of land being farmed. The crop yield in extensive agriculture depends primarily on the natural fertility of the soil, terrain, climate, and the availability of water. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Fast-start pledge A political announcement of intent on behalf of a country to commit a certain amount of fast-start finance to REDD+ related actions, not yet dedicated to a specific recipient. Glossary . 'Voluntary REDD+ Database’. 2011 REDD+ Partnership.
http://reddplusdatabase.org/glossary
Fine root turnover The period of time for the fine roots of plants to form, function and then die. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Floristics A sub domain of botany and biogeography that studies distribution and relationships of plant species over geographic areas. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Food security Having access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Forest Carbon Index (FCI) A forest carbon model for REDD produced by Resources for the Future and Climate Advisers that was publically launched in December 2009 examining future volumes and costs of emission reductions. "Glossary", Climate Focus, "Estimated REDD Credit Supply into International Carbon Markets by 2035", 1 April, 2010
http://www.climatefocus.com/documents/estimated_redd_credit_supply_into_international_carbon_markets_by_2035_
Forest Carbon Forest carbon generally refers to the carbon stored in forests; usually in reference to climate change mitigation projects which aim to increase carbon sequestration in or decrease carbon dioxide emissions from forests "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington, Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Forest Degradation See "Degradation"  
Forest dynamics Describes the underlying physical and biological forces that shape and change a forest over time, or the continuous state of change that alters the composition and structure of a forest. Two basic elements of forest dynamics are forest succession and forest disturbance. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Forest management A branch of forestry concerned with the management (or sustainable management, as opposed to destructive logging) of existing forests. In the context of a carbon project, this is usually in order to enhance carbon stocks in the forest. This is different from afforestation and reforestation, although it equally represents a sink activity. "Glossary", Ecosecurities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Forest transition curve The change in forest cover over time as the value of land uses changes relative to the competing uses, usually resulting in rapidly decreasing forest area during early industrialization and development, followed by slow expansion of forest area to lower than original levels. "Glossary", Climate Focus, "Estimated REDD Credit Supply into International Carbon Markets by 2035", 1 April, 2010
http://www.climatefocus.com/documents/estimated_redd_credit_supply_into_international_carbon_markets_by_2035_
Forest An area of land spanning more than 0.05 hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent with trees with the potential to reach a minimum height of 2‐5 meters at maturity in situ. Actual definitions can vary from country to country as the Kyoto Protocol permits countries to specify the precise definition within these parameters to be used for national accounting of emissions. KAROUSAKIS, K. and COFFEE‐MORLOT, J. as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) Financing Mechanisms to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation: Issues in Design and Implementation. Paris Cedex 16, France: OECD. Jan 2007.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Fragmentation The transformation of a contiguous patch of forest into several smaller, disjointed patches surrounded by other land uses. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Framework for indicators Identifies key elements for each criterion. There is a process for country-specific interpretation to develop a set of indicators that are tailored to the context of a particular country/state/province. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Framework Tree Species Indigenous, non‐domesticated, forest tree species, which, when planted on deforested sites, rapidly re‐establish forest structure and ecological functioning, whilst attracting seed dispersing wildlife. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) A method and infrastructure used to experimentally enrich the atmosphere enveloping portions of a terrestrial ecosystem with controlled amounts of carbon dioxide (and in some cases, other gases), without using chambers or walls. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Free, prior and informed consent The principle that a smallholder or community has the right to give or withhold their consent to proposed projects that may affect the land they own, occupy or otherwise use. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Frontier Deforestation That which is predicted to occur at some point during a project crediting period in an area with historically low deforestation rates but the potential for future incursion, settlement and/or infrastructure development. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b.http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Frontier A regional forest landscape configuration where humans and their infrastructure are encroaching into areas with relatively little human activity. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b. Pg 13.
< http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Full and effective participation Means meaningful influence of all relevant rights holder and stakeholder groups who want to be involved throughout the process, and includes consultation and free, prior and informed consent. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Fungible, or Fungibility Being of such a nature that one part or quantity may be replaced by another equal part or quantity in the satisfaction of an obligation. The fungibility of a ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) for an example allows for the use of various types of gas i.e Methane. Fungibility can also allow for the possibility to exchange, or use interchangeably, different types of reduction credits achieved under different mechanism (e.g. CERs for AAUs). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2 & Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and nongovernmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.)
G20 Group of Twenty. The G20 includes the G8 members and major emerging market countries, providing a forum for finance ministers and central bank governors to address international finance issues. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
G8 Group of Eight. The G8 is a forum of the largest industrialized economies. Members are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia, which joined in 1998, after several years of informal participation. While the G8 was founded to address economic issues, it has increasingly focused on climate change policy and other matters over the last several years. Also of late, the annual summit has been preceded by a meeting of members’ environmental ministers, who have prepared the climate change agenda for the summit. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
G8+5 Climate Dialogue A discussion forum launched at the 2005 G8 meeting Change in Gleneagles, Scotland, incorporating the G8 countries and the large emerging economies: Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) The GATT was for many years the multilateral agreement for international trade policy, succeeded in 1995 by the World Trade Organization. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Global Environment Facility (GEF) The GEF is a multilateral organization established in 1991 that provides grants to developing countries for projects that address a variety of environmental problems. The GEF is also the formally designated financial mechanism for several multilateral agreements, including the UNFCCC. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Gender sensitive Is to understand and give consideration to socio-cultural norms and discriminations in order to acknowledge the different rights, roles & responsibilities of women and men in the community and the relationships between them. Gender sensitive policy, program, administrative and financial activities, and organizational procedures will: differentiate between the capacities, needs and priorities of women and men; ensure that the views and ideas of both women and men are taken seriously; consider the implications of decisions on the situation of women relative to men; and take actions to address inequalities or imbalance between women and men (definition provided by WEDO). Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Geographic Positioning System (GPS) A handheld or vehicle mounted system that uses satellite communications to determine the geographical position and other navigational information. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Global Warming The progressive gradual rise of the Earth's average surface temperature. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). "Carbon in Forests Multilingual Glossary of carbon‐related forest terminology." 18 September 2010.
http://iufroarchive.boku.ac.at/silvavoc/carbonglossary/main.php?type=tree
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) GMO’s are defined as any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology and which is capable of transferring or replicating genetic material. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Goals of a country approach to safeguards

Articulation of the policy goals that a country wants to achieve through its approach to safeguards, including, but not necessarily limited to the UNFCCC requirements for REDD+.   The Cancun safeguards are a basic requirement to be eligible for REDD+ results-based payments under the UNFCCC, but a country may also want to consider other bi-/multi-lateral safeguards requirements, e.g. World Bank Operational Policies, required by the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) Carbon Fund.  Consideration may be given to safeguard requirements and expectations of investors in REDD+ activities as well as those of buyers of verified emissions reductions/enhanced removals. 


Defining safeguards goals also means considering what national policies could benefit from addressing and respecting REDD+ safeguards. The safeguards goals should be consistent with the country’s overall goals for REDD+ in terms of additional benefits, beyond climate change mitigation, such as poverty alleviation or biodiversity conservation.  Ultimately, safeguards goals are about a country's expectations towards the social and environmental outcomes of its engagement in REDD+.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

Good governance Is characterized by accountability, effectiveness, efficiency, fairness/equity, participation and transparency (FAO, Framework for assessing and monitoring forest governance, 2011). Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option = com_content&view=...
Grandfathering An allocation method by which the government gives allowances to entities based on their historic production, emission or consumption levels. (These allowances are allocated for free and are not sold.) International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). "Carbon in Forests Multilingual Glossary of carbon‐related forest terminology." 18 September 2010.
http://iufroarchive.boku.ac.at/silvavoc/carbonglossary/main.php?type=tree
Greenhouse Effect The process by which greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere absorb infrared radiation from the sun, reflect some of it back into space and emit some of it towards the earth. This natural process provides for relatively stable and mild temperatures on earth and in the atmosphere. However, human activity can change the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which can amplify the greenhouse effect. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Greenhouse gases (GHGs) A group of gases that control energy flows in the Earth's atmosphere by absorbing infra-red radiation. Some GHGs occur naturally in the atmosphere (e.g. H2O), while others result from human activities or occur at greater concentrations because of human activities. There are six GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs), per fluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). CO2 is the most important GHG released by human activities. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version 1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Grievance redress mechanism (GRM) The formal and informal means of receiving and facilitating resolution (through dialogue, negotiation, mediation or arbitration) of complaints or disputes, of groups and individuals, whose rights may be affected through the implementation of REDD+ activities.  Not a UNFCCC safeguard requirement, but some countries choose to incorporate (existing, strengthened and/or new) GRMs into their country approach as a contribution to addressing and respecting safeguards. Some countries are also considering use of GRMs as a source of information for their SIS.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Guidelines on Free, Prior and Informed Consent;

and

Meridian REDD+ Safeguards: Practical Considerations for Developing a Summary of Information

Gross primary productivity (GPP) The total amount of carbon compounds produced by photosynthesis of plants in an ecosystem in a given period of time. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Heterotroph An organism capable of deriving energy for life processes only from the decomposition of organic compounds, and incapable of using inorganic compounds as sole sources of energy or for organic synthesis. Most animals are heterotrophic and rely on directly or indirectly (carnivores) eating most plants that are "autotrophic." Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
High Conservation Values Area A natural habitat with conservation values considered to be of outstanding significance or critical importance, requiring appropriate management to maintain. Information can be accessed at http://www.hcvnetwork.org/about-hcvf Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Highest and Best Use (HBU) An appraisal and zoning concept that evaluates all the possible, permissible, and profitable uses of a property to determine the use that will provide the owner with the highest net return on investment in the property, consistent with existing neighboring land uses. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Host Country A country where a JI or CDM (or REDD) project is physically located. A project has to be approved by host country to receive CERs, ERUs or VCUs. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Hot Air Excess emission allowances that have been allocated but do not reflect realistic baseline emissions (emission reductions not additional) because of an economic collapse or declined production for reasons not directly related to efforts to curb emissions (e.g. in Eastern European Countries around 1990). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Human rights Are the fundamental rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, based on core principles like dignity, fairness, equality, respect and autonomy, including but not limited to the rights enshrined in relevant international treaties, conventions and other instruments. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option = com_content&view=...
Institutional arrangements In the context of REDD+ safeguards, institutional arrangements refer to the (formal and informal, state and non-state) institutions, their mandates, procedures and capacities for implementing a country’s policies, laws and regulations, (together with private sector standards and customary norms of local communities), serving to define who will be responsible for ensuring safeguards are respected when implementing REDD+ activities.  This can include arrangements to strengthen the capacity of different stakeholders to respect safeguards.

Adapted from:

Meridian REDD+ Safeguards: Practical Considerations for Developing a Summary of Information
International Energy Agency (IEA) An intergovernmental organization founded by the organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 that conducts analysis of energy policy and provides guidance to its member governments. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
International Emissions Trading (IET) Established by Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol. Countries with Annex B commitments can participate in IET. See also "cap and trade." Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Improved Forest Management (IFM) Forest management activities which result in increased carbon stocks within forests and/or reduce GHG emissions from forestry activities when compared to business as usual forestry practices. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Incoming funding Reports from REDD+ countries and recipient institutions on funding provided by funder countries and institutions. Glossary.'Voluntary REDD+ Database’. 2011 REDD+ Partnership.
http://reddplusdatabase.org/glossary
Indicators Agreed list of quantitative markers for monitoring progress towards desired goals and targets. The CCB Standards include indicators under each criterion that third-party auditors must use to determine whether the project in question satisfies that particular criterion. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Infiltration The process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Input-based payments Payments that are made based on actions which are assumed to produce emissions reductions or removals increases, but where the outcome cannot be measured directly (or is very costly to measure). Input-based payment schemes are often referred to as policies and measures (PAMs). Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’KE Brandon, M Wells-A. Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Intensive agriculture An agricultural system with high productivity per unit area. Intensive agricultural systems also frequently have high input requirements per unit area, relying upon the use of mechanization, fertilizers, and agrochemicals. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Established in 1988 as a special body by the UN Environment Programme and the World Meteorological Organization to provide assessments to policymakers of the results of ongoing climate change research. The IPCC is responsible for providing the scientific and technical foundation for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), primarily through the publication of periodic assessment reports (see 'Second Assessment Report’ and 'Third Assessment Report’). http://www.ipcc.ch/ Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Invasive Species Are defined as non-native species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species in the project zone as identified in the Global Invasive Species Database: http://www.issg.org/database, from scientific literature, and from local knowledge. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Joint Implementation Mechanism (JI) A facility created under the Kyoto Protocol, which allows an Annex I party to fund and/or run a project to reduce emissions in another Annex I party. The funding country can then apply the emissions reductions generated to help it to meet its own emissions target under the Kyoto Protocol (as opposed to projects located in non-Annex I countries as in the CDM). "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Keystone Tree Species The term used to describe tree species vital to the support of animal populations, usually by flowering or fruiting at times when other food resources are in short supply. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Kyoto Protocol A subsidiary agreement to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change that was signed at COP-3 to the UNFCCC in Kyoto, Japan, December 1997. It specifies emission obligations for the Annex-B countries and defines the three so-called Kyoto mechanisms (or "flexible mechanisms") JI, CDM and emissions trading. It entered into force in 2005. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Land rent An economic term defined as the total net revenue or benefits received from a parcel of land. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Land Tenure The relationship, whether legally or customarily defined, through which people, as individuals or groups, own or hold rights to use land. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) This is an identified category of activities that can contribute to both greenhouse gas emissions and emissions removals. The other main categories are energy-related emissions (both production and consumption), agriculture and waste-related activities. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Leakage The unexpected loss of anticipated carbon benefits due to the displacement of activities in the project area to areas outside the project, resulting in carbon emissions. Leakage can negate some or all of the carbon benefits generated by a project. Although not often acknowledged, leakage can also be positive, if best practices are adopted outside of the project area and gain widespread use.e.g. the displacement of logging due to forest conservation activities. IUFRO. "Carbon in Forests Multilingual Glossary of carbon related forest terminology." 18 September 2010.
http://iufroarchive.boku.ac.at/silvavoc/carbonglossary/main.php?type=tree
Liability It is the obligation of the REDD implementing project or country to ensure that the emission reductions that have been credited are permanent. This terms is mainly used in relation to the permanence of REDD (Mainly used in relation to the permanence of REDD). "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Lidar Lidar (Light Detecting and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology that uses laser scanning to collect height or elevation data. "Glossary of Terms." Ordnance Survey Ireland. 2009. 2 July "Glossary of Terms." Ordnance Survey Ireland. 2009. 2 July2009.
http://www.osi.ie/en/alist/glossary‐of‐terms.aspx
Lignin A complex chemical compound most commonly found in wood, and an integral part of the secondary cell walls of plants and some algae. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Linkage Provision for interchangeability of permits, credits, or both between and among cap-and-trade and emission- reduction- credit systems. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Litter Forest carbon pool that includes the detritus, leaves, small dead biomass lying on the ground, and humus layers of the soil surface. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Livelihood A means of making a living. It encompasses people’s capabilities, assets, income and activities required to secure the necessities of life. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Local laws Local laws include all legal norms given by organisms of government whose jurisdiction is less than the national level, such as departmental, municipal and customary norms. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Market Leakage An increase in GHG emissions when a project changes the supply and demand equilibrium, causing other market actors to shift their activities. For example, if a large forest-conservation project reduces the local timber supply so that demand is unmet, this may increase prices and pressures on forests elsewhere. See "Leakage". "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Marrakesh Accords Agreements reached at COP-7 in 2001 that set rules for implementing the more detailed provisions of the Kyoto Protocol. Among other things, the accords include rules for establishing a greenhouse gas emissions trading system; implementing and monitoring the CDM; and setting up and operating three funds to support efforts to adapt to climate change. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Mature (Climax) Forest A Mature or climax forest is an undisturbed, stable, forest that reaches maximum development in terms of structure and species composition, determined by soil and climatic conditions. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Mature (Climax) Tree Species Mature or Climax Tree Species are tree species that comprise a mature (climax) forest, with shade tolerant seedlings. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) The collection of data and information at a national (or sub-national) level, and performance of the necessary calculations for estimating emission reductions or enhancement of carbon stocks and associated uncertainties against a reference level. "Glossary", Climate Focus, "Estimated REDD Credit Supply into International Carbon Markets by 2035", 1 April, 2010
http://www.climatefocus.com/documents/estimated_redd_credit_supply_into_international_carbon_markets_by_2035_
Methodology A detailed approach to determining a project baseline, greenhouse gas sources and sinks, specific additionality tests and planned monitoring processes under a standard, specific to the particular project type and circumstance. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Mitigation The term used to describe any action seeking to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere by human-related activities. Such actions might include reducing our use of fossil fuels and changing the way we use land - such as by reducing our rate of land clearing and deforestation, and increasing our rate of reforestation. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU‐IAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Monitoring The collection and archiving of all relevant data necessary for determining the baseline and project-based measuring of anthropogenic emissions by sources (or sinks) of greenhouse gases (GHG) within the project boundary (and leakage of emissions). "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Meeting of the Parties (MOP) The supreme body of the Kyoto Protocol that meets annually for negotiations, in conjunction with the UNFCCC COP. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
Mosaic Deforestation Mosaic deforestation occurs where population pressure and local land use practices produce a patchwork of cleared lands, where forests are accessible and where the agents of deforestation and degradation typically are present within the region containing the area to be protected. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Mosaic A regional forest landscape configuration where human populations and associated agricultural activities and infrastructure (roads, towns, etc.) are spread out across the landscape and most areas of forest within such a configured region or country are accessible. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18, 2008b. Pg 13.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Native or Natural Forests A forest composed of indigenous trees not established by planting or/and seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. "Glossary" Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18, 2008b.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Natural Regeneration The recovery of a forest following disturbance, in the absence of human intervention. Resulting in increasing ecosystem functionality, vegetation species diversity and structural complexity, habitat availability etc. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Naturalised Species A non-native species that reproduces consistently and sustains populations over more than one life cycle without direct intervention by humans. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Nested approach a hybrid approach to REDD accounting that includes elements of both sub national and national approaches to REDD. Under this approach countries can adopt two unique features: Firstly, the capacity to scale up from a sub national to a national approach over time. Secondly, countries have the option to account for and receive international credits at sub national and national levels simultaneously. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Nesting Agreement An agreement between two or more projects or initiatives involving the accounting for, management of, or payment for the same services or impacts at different levels, to ensure the initiatives are compatible and do not double-count or claim impacts or benefits. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Net primary productivity (NPP) The amount of carbon retained in an ecosystem (increase in biomass); it is equal to the difference between the amount of carbon produced through photosynthesis (GPP) and the amount of energy that is used for respiration (R). Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Non Timber Forest Products (NTFP’s) Any product or service other than timber that is produced in forests. They include fruits and nuts, vegetables, fish and game, medicinal plants, resins, essences and a range of barks and fibers such as bamboo, rattans, and a host of other palms and grasses. CIFOR. "Factsheet", 20 September 2010
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/Publications/Corporate/FactSheet/ntfp.htm
Non-Annex I Parties/Countries (or Non-Annex B countries) Parties, mostly developing nations, that have ratified or acceded to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and are not included in Annex I of the Kyoto Protocol. IPCC Glossary of Climate Change Acronyms:
http://unfccc.int/essential_background/glossary/items/3666.php
Non-native Species occurring outside their natural range, whether accidentally or intentionally introduced. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Non-permanence Risk Analysis The process by which a project risk assessment is conducted, and subsequently validated independently by a VCS accredited entity. Based on this assessment, the validator/verifier assigns a project risk rating and determines the percentage of the project’s carbon credits to be transferred into the AFOLU Pooled Buffer Account. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Other stakeholders The main groups potentially affected by the project activities that are not living on or adjacent to the project site. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Policies and Measures (PAMs) In REDD+, PAMs are nationally enacted policies and actions that countries undertake to reduce emissions or increase removals. Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’. KE Brandon, M Wells-A. Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Parcelization The breaking up of a land area under single ownership into multiple smaller parcels, usually for resale. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science +Business Media B.V. 2012
Payments for environmental (ecosystem) services (PES) The voluntary payment by a (minimum one) buyer to a (minimum one) provider to "buy" an environmental service (or a land use likely to secure that service), if, and only if the provider secures the environmental service. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications "Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Peat Swamp Forests Tropical moist forests where waterlogged soils prevent dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing, which over time creates thick layers of acidic peat (organic matter). Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science +Business Media B.V. 2012
Performance Target The level that an indicator must reach, or an outcome or activity that must be completed by participants to trigger payment or other benefits being provided. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Permanence A key pre-requisite for the credibility of any carbon sequestration activity, particularly tree planting; that it have in place safeguards to cover the possibility that carbon removed from the atmosphere may be released in the future, for example, due to fire, disease or logging. In practice, ongoing verification of planted trees must take place where carbon offset credits have been generated for those carbon reductions. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
PES Agreement A contract made between a project coordinator with a smallholder or community group, providing the basis for the transaction of climate and other ecosystem services, and specifying rights and responsibilities of the parties over a specified duration. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
PES Period The time period over which participants receive payments or other benefits and are monitored against performance targets under their PES agreements. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Photosynthesis The process by which plants take carbon dioxide from the air to build carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. Baede, A.P.M. "Annex I Glossary." IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. 2007.
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/glossary/ar4‐wg1.pdf
Pioneer species Species which colonize previously bare or disturbed land, usually leading to ecological succession. Since uncolonized land may have thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species are often plants with adaptations such as long roots and root nodes containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and tend to grow well in open high-light environments. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science +Business Media B.V. 2012
Plan Vivo A land-management plan for a specified piece of land, drawn-up by a smallholder or community group, incorporating one or more of the project interventions. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Plan Vivo Certificate Climate service certificates generated by plan Vivo projects, independently issued by the Plan Vivo Foundation. Each Plan Vivo Certificate represents the reduction or avoidance of one tonne of carbon dioxide emissions equivalent, plus associated livelihood and ecosystem benefits. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Planned adaptation Adaptation that is the result of a deliberate policy decision, based on an awareness that conditions have changed or are about to change and that action is required to return to, maintain, or achieve a desired state. Appendix 1 Glossary. In Climate Change 2007 Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof,J.P., van der Linden, P.J. & Hanson, C.E. (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. p. 976
http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/annexessannexes‐glossary‐a‐d.html
Planned Deforestation Planned deforestation can encompass a wide variety of activities such as: national resettlement programs, conversion of forestland to industrial-scale production of commodities such as soybeans, oil palm; urban, rural, and infrastructure development. This could include decisions by individual land owners or community groups, whose land is legally zoned for agriculture, to convert their forest(s) to crop production or biofuel plantations. These planned deforestation activities would be outlined in land planning or management documents, and could therefore be readily verified under the VCS. See unplanned Deforestation. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b. Pg 13.
http://www.v-c-s.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Policies and measures (PAMs)

A frequently used phrase - sometimes abbreviated as PAMs - referring to the steps taken or to be taken by countries to reduce emissions and enhance removals of greenhouse-gases under the UNFCCC.

UNFCCC Decision 13/CP.7

Policies, laws, and regulations (PLRs)

Policies, laws, and regulations (PLRs), and also operational plans and programmes to implement these PLRs, serve to define how safeguards are to be applied when implementing REDD+ activities. .

Policies: strategic, guiding or planning documents prepared by a (typically, but not exclusively governmental) institution and that describes a vision and political direction to address a specific issue.

Laws: legally binding acts, enacted by a legislative body (e.g. Parliament), which typically create rights and obligations that can be judicially enforced.

Regulations: issued by an executive body (e.g. a Ministry) as legally binding instruments to apply the laws and to provide operational directives.

Some PLRs may also serve as policies and measures (PAMs), to reduce greenhouse gas emissions/enhance their removals, as articulated in the National REDD+ Strategy/Action Plan. For example, a policy to designate new protected areas, targeting sites of conservation importance and emissions reduction/enhanced removal potential, is both as a REDD+ PAM and a safeguards PLR.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

Potential Project Area Areas which fall under the applicability conditions under which project interventions can take place i.e. land which could be put under a plan vivo as part of the project. This need not be a specific area or boundary, and may be a very large area across a country or region, or many separate areas in different locations where similar conditions apply. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Precautionary principle Is defined in the Preamble to the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992): '[W]here there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as a reason for postponing measures to avoid or minimize such a threat.’ Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Primary Forest See Mature (climax) forest. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Principle of conservativeness Justification for intentionally underestimating emissions reductions or removals increases to reduce the risk of overestimation of the climate benefit. The principle is applied when MRV cannot completely, accurately and precisely measure, report and verify emissions or removals. Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’. KE Brandon, M Wells-A. Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Project Crediting Period The period of time for which net GHG emissions reductions or removals will be verified, which under the VCS is equivalent to the project lifetime. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18, 2008b. Pg 17.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Project Crediting Project crediting involves the issuing of credits to an emissions reduction project, e.g. a CDM project. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version 1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Project Design Document (PDD) The document(s) that describe the design of a project and the ways in which it meets each of the requirements of the CCB Standards. CCB Standards, Rules for the use of Climate, Community &Biodiversity Standards, Version June 21, 2010, Pg. 4
http://www.climatestandards.org/standards/pdf / ccb_standards_second_edition_december_2008.pdf
Project Idea Note (PIN) A short project description (about 6 pages) that provides basic information about the project such as type, size and location of the project; estimation of the anticipated total amount of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reductions compared to the "business-as-usual" scenario, etc. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Project Intervention A specific land use system implemented as part of the project that is expected to provide climate benefits, such as reforestation, or avoided deforestation. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Project Intervention Area The area of land within a plan vivo or plan vivos where specified project interventions are carried out. For example, a plan vivo may be developed for a smallholding of 10 hectares within which there is cropland and degraded land. Within that plan vivo, 2 hectares will be planted with native trees under the project intervention. The project intervention area is therefore 2 hectares. The plan vivo area, or management area, is 10 hectares. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Project lifetime The time period over which project activities will be implemented. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Project Proponents The entities or individuals organizing, proposing or advocating a particular carbon offset project. The project proponents could be the project designer(s), developer(s) and/or investor(s), or other parties working on behalf of the project. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Project start date For the purposes of the CCB Standards the 'start of the project’ is defined as the start of implementation of activities that will directly cause the project’s expected GHG emissions reductions or removals. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Project zone The project area and the land within the boundaries of the adjacent communities potentially affected by the project. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Readiness REDD+ country actions, including capacity building, policy design, consultation and consensus building, and testing and evaluation of a REDD+ national strategy, prior to a comprehensive REDD+ implementation. Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’. KE Brandon, M Wells-A. Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Real With regard to carbon markets, the assurance that credited carbon benefits actually​ occurred. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On-the-Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook-TNC-CIWCS.pdf
REDD+ action Specific interventions, within the five REDD+ activity categories agreed under the UNFCCC, aimed to tackle underlying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, or to support more effective/extensive “plus” activities

Adapted from:

UN-REDD REDD+ Safeguard Information Systems: Practical Design Considerations [in prep.]
REDD + S+E or REDD plus Social & Environmental Standards An initiative used to provide a comprehensive framework of key issues to address with respect to the social and environmental performance of a REDD+ program. The standards provide guidance to assist with REDD+ design and also provide a mechanism for reporting on the social and environmental performance of REDD+ programs. CCBA (Climate Community & Biodiversity Alliance), REDD +Social & Environmental Standards, Version 1, 2010,
www.climate‐standards.org
http://www.climatestandards.org/redd+/docs/june2010/REDD_Social_Environmental_Standards_06_01_10_final.pdf
REDD Plus or REDD + The extra consideration in reducing greenhouse emissions beyond deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) being given to sustainable forest management and afforestation/reforestation in developing countries. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
REDD+ Partnership A voluntary and interim platform for country partners, with the core objective to contribute to the global battle against climate change by serving as an interim platform for the Partners to scale up REDD+ actions and finance, and to that end to take immediate action, including improving the effectiveness, efficiency, transparency and coordination of REDD+ initiatives and financial instruments, to facilitate among other things knowledge transfer, capacity enhancement, mitigation actions and technology development and transfer. Glossary. 'Voluntary REDD+ Database’. 2011 REDD+ Partnership.
http://reddplusdatabase.org/glossary
REDD+ units Is an emissions reduction or removal increase that can be sold in a carbon market (similar to CER and VER), and that might also include co-benefits. Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’.KE Brandon, M Wells-A.Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) Logging techniques that result in significantly less damage to the surrounding forest and forest ecosystem. Examples of RIL include directional felling, trimming of inter-crown vines, and careful road planning. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,​Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) An initiative to cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing by the inclusion of "voided deforestation" in carbon market mechanisms. More simply, payment in return for the active preservation of existing forests. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
Reference Area As pertaining to a forest carbon project, a larger area with similar conditions, agents and drivers used for comparison over time. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,​Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Reference Scenarios Please refer to "Baseline Scenario."  
Reforestation Reforestation is the direct human-induced conversion of non-forested land to forested land through planting, seeding and/or the human-induced promotion of natural seed sources, on land that was forested but that has been converted to non-forested land. UNFCCC, as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) UNFCCC. Glossary of CDM Terms. EB41. 2008.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Remote Sensing A method of measuring deforestation and/or forest degradation by a recording device that is not in physical contact with the forest, such as a satellite. A method of measuring deforestation and/or forest degradation by a recording device that is not in physical contact with the forest, such as a satellite.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Removals This is the opposite of an emission of greenhouse gas and occurs when greenhouse gases are removed from the atmosphere, for example, by trees during the process of photosynthesis. "Glossary and Abbreviations", Barnsley, Ingrid, United Nations​ University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNUIAS) 2009, "UNUIAS Guide, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): A Guide for Indigenous Peoples." January 2009.
http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/2009_REDD_Guide.pdf
Resiliency The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to retain essentially the same function, structure, and ecosystem services. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Respecting safeguards Effective application of policies, laws and regulations, through the associated institutional (and individual) arrangements, to ensure they are implemented in practice and affect real and positive outcomes on the ground.

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

and

Meridian REDD+ Safeguards: Practical Considerations for Developing a Summary of Information

Respiration The process by which animals and plants use up stored foods (mostly complex carbohydrates) by combustion with oxygen to produce energy for body maintenance. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+ Business Media B.V. 2012
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) A cap-and-trade scheme introduced in ten US Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states, beginning in 2009. Glossary and Abbreviations. 'Post-Kyoto-International-Climate Policy’. 2009
http://belfercenter.hks.harvard.edu/publication/19017/postkyoto_international_climate
Rhizosphere The area immediately around plant roots, including the roots itself that comprises intense microbial activity, where plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and soil structure and chemistry, interact in complex ways. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+ Business Media B.V. 2012
Rights holders Those whose rights are potentially affected by the REDD+ program, including holders of individual rights and Indigenous Peoples and others who hold collective rights. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Risk buffer A reserve of climate services generated by Plan Vivo projects but not eligible to be sold as Plan Vivo Certificates, to protect against unexpected losses of carbon stocks or increases of emissions. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Risk Classification (or class) Under the VCS, one of four categories (low, medium, high, or unacceptably high/fail) representing the general level of non-permanence risk associated with a given project. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf

Safeguards

’A measure taken to protect someone or something or to prevent something undesirable’ (i.e. do no harm).  They have wide remit and can apply to a project, set of projects or more widely to programmes as well as act as policies.
In the REDD+ context, see ‘Cancun Safeguards’, which also explicitly seek to enhance environmental and social benefits (i.e. do good).

Oxford Dictionary

Safeguard information system (SIS)

A combination of existing systems and sources of information, together with new systems or information to fill gaps as needed, on how all of the Cancun safeguards are addressed and respected throughout the implementation of REDD+ activities.

Required as a key piece of national REDD+ architecture (or ‘Warsaw pillar’) under the UNFCCC.  Safeguard information systems should be consistent with the guidance in UNFCCC decision 12/CP.17:

  • provide transparent and consistent information that is accessible by all relevant stakeholders and updated on a regular basis;
  • be country driven and implemented at the national level;
  • be transparent and flexible to allow for improvements over time;
  • provide information; and
  • build on existing systems as appropriate.

UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

UNFCCC Decision 12/CP.17

Scope of  a country approach to safeguards

The activities to be covered by the safeguards as defined by the country. UNFCCC requirements indicate that safeguards be applied to all relevant REDD+ activities, i.e. the policies and measures identified in the National Strategy and Action Plan.

A country may go beyond the forestry sector, and include other land use sectors implicated as key drivers of deforestation/forest degradation, and could apply the safeguards to a scope broader than REDD+ with a view to attract other sources of investment and achieve domestic policy goals. 

Adapted from:
UN-REDD Framework for Supporting the Development of Country Approaches to Safeguards

Secondary Forest A forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a major disturbance but is not yet at the end point of succession (climax forest), usually distinguished by differences in ecosystem functionality, vegetation species diversity, structural complexity, etc. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Sequestration The process of increasing the carbon content of a carbon pool other than the atmosphere. IPCC, as quoted in Global Canopy Programme, "Glossary of Terms" ‐ "The Little REDD Book. A Guide to governmental and non‐governmental proposals for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation." (Global Canopy Foundation, November 2008.) IPCC. IPCC Special Report: Land use, Land‐use Change, and Forestry. IPCC. 2000.
http://www.globalcanopy.org/themedia/file/PDFs/LRB_lowres/lrb_en.pdf
Silviculture The practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values of landowners. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Social justice Is understood to mean 'respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights’. Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Soil organic carbon (SOC) The carbon pool that includes all organic material in soil, but excluding the coarse roots of the belowground biomass pool. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2012
Stakeholder An individual, group or body that has a legitimate stake or interest in the project and is either participating in or likely to be affected or influenced by the project. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Stern Report/Review The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is a 700-page report commissioned by the British government. The Review, by the economist Lord Stern of Brentford, was released on 30 October 2006 and discusses the effect of climate change and global warming on the world economy. The review concludes that 1% of global gross domestic product (GDP) per annum needs to be invested in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change. Failure to do so could risk lowering. "Glossary", Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR),"Moving Ahead with REDD. Issues, Options and Implications" Center for International Forestry Research, Indonesia, 2008.
http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BAngelsen0801.pdf
Structural adjustment Term used to describe the policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in developing countries. These policy changes are conditions for getting new loans from the IMF or World Bank, or for obtaining lower interest rates on existing loans. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science +Business Media B.V. 2012
Summary of information

UNFCCC requirement to obtain results-based payments for REDD+, the summary is the means by which REDD+ countries will communicate internationally to the UNFCCC how they are addressing and respecting the safeguards throughout REDD+ implementation. It is likely (although not explicitly required by the UNFCCC) to be a product of the national safeguard information system (SIS).

The summary can be seen as a safeguards narrative, through which each developing country tells its “story” of how the safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of REDD+ activities, thus increasing transparency and fulfilling one of the requirements to access to results-based finance.  It may also include quantitative and qualitative information drawn from the SIS.

Adapted from:
Meridian REDD+ Safeguards: Practical Considerations for Developing a Summary of Information

See:
UNFCCC Decision 12/CP.17

 
Sustainable Management of Forests The management of forest areas designated for the production of timber in such a way as to effectively balance social, economic and ecological objectives. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Target Forest A forest ecosystem which defines the goals of a forest restoration program in terms of tree species composition, structure, and biodiversity levels etc.; usually the nearest surviving patch of primary forest, remaining in the landscape, at a similar elevation, slope, aspect etc. to those of the restoration site. "Glossary", FOREST RESTORATION RESEARCH UNIT, 2008. "Research for Restoring Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A Practical Guide". Biology Department, Science Faculty, Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
http://www.forru.org/PDF_Files/rfrtfpdf/rfrtfappendix.pdf
Technical Specification A section of the PDD that describes technical aspects of each specific project intervention to take place in a Plan Vivo project, including the methodology used to quantify climate services, assessment of risks, leakage and additionality, the management and monitoring system to be adopted, and description of likely ecosystem impacts. Glossary. 'Plan Vivo Standard 2012 Draft for Consultation’. 2012
http://www.planvivo.org/wp-content/uploads/Plan-Vivo-Standard-2012-consultation-draft.pdf
Territories Are particularly relevant for Indigenous Peoples and refers to the total environment of the areas which peoples concerned occupy or otherwise use (ILO Convention 169). Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Thinning The common term for the process of judiciously removing certain individual trees to improve the remaining quality and tree vigor in the plantation or forest; thinning can reduce the risk of a reversal of carbon sequestration due to fire, windthrow, insect infestations and disease. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate,
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science +Business Media B.V. 2012
Threatened species The term 'threatened’ is used to describe species at risk of extinction, specifically those falling into IUCN’s threat categories of Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most comprehensive global standard on the status and distribution of globally threatened species. Individual species are assigned threat categories by a network of specialist groups which convene workshops to compile and review the best available information on species. The categorization of species is based on a set of explicit quantitative criteria and standards which are subject to review and continuous appraisal. Many national and local governments have developed complementary listings of threatened species, many of which contribute towards or are informed by the IUCN Red List. These are often available in national or regional reports, legislation or related policies. Where species have not been evaluated by IUCN Red List or national lists, the criteria for global (IUCN, 2001) or regional (IUCN, 2003) assessments could be used to assign a threat category to them. http://www.iucnredlist.org. Additional national or regional listings should also be used where these may differ from the IUCN Red List. Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Throughfall The process by which precipitation has fallen through the vegetative (forest) canopy, including rain or fog that collects on leaves and branches. Glossary. M.S. Ashton et al. (eds.), Managing Forest Carbon in a Changing Climate, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2232-3, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Tier The IPCC Good Practice Guidance tiers are levels of methodological complexity: Tier 1 is the most basic and uses global default values for carbon stocks; Tier 2 is intermediate and uses national values; and Tier 3 is most demanding in terms of complexity and data requirements, and uses site-specific values for carbon stocks. Glossary. 'Realizing REDD+ National Strategy and Policy Option’.KE Brandon, M Wells-A.Angelsen (Ed.), 2008
Traditional knowledge "...the manifestations of *indigenous peoples+ sciences, technologies and cultures, including human and genetic resources, seeds, medicines, knowledge of the properties of fauna and flora, oral traditions, literatures, designs, sports and traditional games and visual and performing arts" (UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples). Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
Transparency Mean that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media (Citizens as partners, 2001). Glossary of Terms Used in REDD+SES.
http://www.redd-standards.org/index.php?option= com_content&view=...
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) An international agreement that was established in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit. It is the overall framework guiding the international climate negotiations. Its main objective is "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic (man-made) interference with the climate system". The Kyoto Protocol is a Protocol to the UNFCCC. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecurities REDD.pdf
Unplanned (unsanctioned) Deforestation Unplanned or unsanctioned deforestation generally occurs as a result of socioeconomic forces that promote alternative uses of forested land, and the inability of institutions to control these activities. Examples include population growth, road expansion and other infrastructure developments often leads to subsistence food production and fuel wood gathering taking place on lands not designated for such activities. Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) Guidance for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use Projects. Released November 18,2008b. Pg 13.
http://www.v‐cs.org/docs/Guidance%20for%20 AFOLU%20Projects.pdf
Validation A process by which an independent third-party organization, which has been certified to evaluate projects according to a specific standard, thoroughly reviews the design, methodologies, calculations and strategies employed in a project, ensuring the project follows the rules of the chosen standard. "Definitions and Jargon" Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD): A Casebook of On‐the‐Ground Experience. 2010. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation International and Wildlife Conservation Society. Arlington,Virginia.
http://www.hedon.info/docs/REDD_Casebook‐TNC‐CIWCS.pdf
Verification The periodic independent review and ex-post determination of the monitored reductions in anthropogenic emissions by sources of greenhouse gases or increases in carbon stocks (carbon benefits) that have occurred as a result of a project activity during the verification period. International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). "Carbon in Forests Multilingual Glossary of carbon‐related forest terminology." 18 September 2010.
http://iufroarchive.boku.ac.at/silvavoc/carbonglossary/main.php?type=tree
Verified Emissions Reductions (VERs) The general name given to carbon offset credits in the voluntary carbon market. These are tradable credits for greenhouse emission reductions generated to meet voluntary demand for carbon credits by organizations and individuals wanting to offset their own emissions. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) The Climate Group, the International Emissions Trading Association, the World Economic Forum and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development developed the Voluntary Carbon Standard to provide a robust, global standard and program for approval of credible voluntary offsets. http://www.v-c-s.org Appendix B Glossary. 'Climate, Community & Biodiversity Standards’. (Second Edition – December 2008).
http://www.cbd.int/convention/convention.shtml
Voluntary Carbon Unit (VCU) The name of carbon offset credits specifically verified to the Voluntary Carbon Standard, one of the leading independent standards established to demonstrate integrity in project-based emission reductions in the unregulated voluntary carbon market. Carbon Positive. "Glossary", 20 September 2010
http://www.carbonpositive.net/viewarticle.aspx?articleID=44#T
Voluntary Markets The term used to describe carbon markets outside the regulatory carbon framework that does not involve international agreements. These markets are driven by voluntary commitments from organizations (e.g., energy companies, airlines) and individuals. "Glossary", Eco securities Limited. "Challenges for a business case for high‐biodiversity REDD Projects and Schemes."‐ A Report for the Secretariat of the CBD, February 2009, Version1.2
http://www.illegallogging.info/uploads/ecosecuritiesREDD.pdf
Voluntary REDD+ Database A publicly available voluntary database of REDD+ financing, actions and results. Glossary. 'Voluntary REDD+ Database’. 2011 REDD+ Partnership.
http://reddplusdatabase.org/glossary