Benefits for Ecosystems and Livelihoods


13 October 2015

Linking Adaptation and Mitigation through Community Forestry: Case Studies from Asia

uploaded by RECOFTC The Center for People and Forests

Given the role that forests play in mitigation and adaptation to climate change, there are potential synergies between REDD+ and the ability of populations to adapt to the impacts of climate change. As many countries in the region develop their national adaptation strategies, explicit incorporation of forests within these plans needs to be ensured. Conversely, mitigation activities such as REDD+ rarely include explicit references to adaptation or the development of adaptive capacity (FAO, 2012). Additionally, failure to consider mitigation and adaptation in the context of forests and forest based communities may result in an undermining of sustainable forestry practices and a loss of rights and livelihoods among vulnerable communities. Exploring the role of forests for mitigation, adaptation, and livelihoods can identify potential synergies and trade-offs.These case studies are based on local experiences in Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam in an attempt to explore how community forestry may contribute to adaptation and mitigation goals. They are exploratory and descriptive in nature and although not purporting to be representative of the region, they provide a foundation for a better understanding of these relationships.

03 September 2015

PES incentives for smallholders to avoid deforestation: lessons learned and factors for success

uploaded by Chloe-Mae Kilby


A review for the SHARP partnership of 28 documented PES projects that have involved working with smallholders in tropical forest countries to protect watersheds, conserve biodiversity and minimise deforestation. The report provides a useful inventory of smallholder-focused projects and offers a close look at the design and outcome of seven case studies in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia. The authors ask what lessons can be learned for future PES schemes but also for other smallholder-oriented initiatives.


29 September 2014

Supporting planning for multiple benefits from REDD+ in Uganda

uploaded by Elina Väänänen

REDD+ aims to incentivise reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, as well as the conservation of forest carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks. While these activities have the potential to provide multiple social and environmental benefits, there is also a need to avoid social and environmental risks. This report examines steps in the REDD+ planning process that can support the delivery of multiple benefits in Uganda. It discusses the importance of identifying potential benefits and risks in designing REDD+ interventions and country approaches to safeguards. It also highlights the potential for synergies between REDD+, the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and the National Biodiversity Action Plan. Using example maps for Uganda, the report illustrates how spatial analysis can support REDD+ planning. The report has been produced under the REDD-PAC project, funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety.

16 December 2011

ExploringMultipleBenefits mapping toolbox (ArcGIS)

uploaded by Lera Miles

This customised ArcGIS 9.3.1 toolbox has been developed at UNEP-WCMC for REDD+ multiple benefits analyses. It provides both novice and experienced GIS users with a series of raster analysis tools to help identify, map and understanding the spatial relationship between ecosystem carbon stocks, other ecosystem services, biodiversity, land-use and pressures on natural resources. The resolution of the analysis is defined by the user. The toolbox is flexible, providing a set of tools that can be used interchangeably whilst using a consistent and efficient methodology that will decreases the time required to undertake such analyses.

It has been developed through work funded by both the UN-REDD Programme and the German Environment Ministry (BMU) through its Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN).

19 September 2011

REDD and scenarios 110919

uploaded by Lera Miles

DRAFT DOCUMENT - your comments are welcome, to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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15 March 2011

Biodiversity and Livelihoods: REDD-plus Benefits

uploaded by Dave

Biodiversity and Livelihoods: REDD-plus Benefits
Brochure published jointly with CBD, GIZ and the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, with financial support from Norway. 

15 October 2010

Carbon, biodiversity & ecosystem services: exploring co-benefits. Nigeria. Preliminary Results

uploaded by Emily Dunning

Benefits of actions to maintain and enhance carbon stocks for climate change mitigation can be increased by taking into account areas important for biodiversity and ecosystem goods and services. Here, we present initial analyses of the spatial relationship of carbon stocks to areas of importance for biodiversity and protected areas in Nigeria, based on a preliminary carbon map for the country. The relationship between carbon stocks and potential pressures from oil and gas exploration is also presented. Future work will improve the carbon map based on up-to-date landcover data and will address other aspects of their importance for biodiversity and ecosystem services to provide a basis for discussion and planning for co-benefits from carbon management in Nigeria.

08 October 2010

Potential links between monitoring for multiple benefits of REDD+ and the monitoring requirements of the Rio Conventions

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This paper investigates how efforts to set up monitoring and indicator systems for the multiple benefits of REDD+ can benefit from and/or support the relevant work that has already been initiated or completed under the Rio Conventions. The analysis shows that there is a significant amount of overlap between the subjects addressed by existing or emerging monitoring activities under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the UNFCCC, and the types of data that countries might wish to obtain in order to track the multiple benefits of REDD+. At the same time, due to the differences in mandate and focus of the various processes, there are also discrepancies with regard to the design of indicators and methods for data collection. However, there is still clearly a high potential for mutual support between current work on monitoring under the Rio Conventions and any new schemes to be set up within the context of REDD+. These opportunities should be used to enable a more efficient and coherent implementation of multilateral environmental agreements.

08 October 2010

A safer bet for REDD+ Review of the evidence on the relationship between biodiversity and the resilience of forest carbon stocks

uploaded by Emily Dunning

There is a growing belief that the carbon stocks of natural, biodiverse forests are likely to be more resilient to climate change than those of planted, less diverse forests (e.g. Fischer et al. 2006; Bodin and Wiman 2007). Resilience in this context means that forests can resist and or recover from the negative effects of climate change. Resistance and recovery will differ between forests for various reasons. This review examines the role of biodiversity and related factors in carbon stock resilience.

08 October 2010

Registro de datos útiles para la toma de decisiones en relación a REDD+ y sus beneficios múltiples

uploaded by Emily Dunning

Efforts related to REDD+ in Bolivia are a component of the overall national strategy on forests and climate change. A UN-REDD Programme mission to Bolivia in 2010 identified a widespread enthusiasm for incorporating consideration of the ecosystem-derived multiple benefits of REDD+ into decision making. Stakeholders highlighted the existence of relevant work and datasets on biodiversity, ecosystem services and other factors that have been produced by many different players. They felt that overview of existing datasets would help to clarify what data exists and is held by whom, and so enhance collaboration and reduce the potential for duplicating effort.

This metadata directory has been collated to address this need. It offers an initial overview of existing datasets relevant to REDD+ and multiple benefits, along with the appropriate and available metadata. The directory includes the information that was accessible on each dataset, its format and the methods used to generate it, as well as on its current location and custodian. It is annotated with suggestions of potential uses for each dataset in the context of decision making for REDD+. The directory has been populated through dialogues with stakeholders contacted during the mission, metadata received from colleagues in Bolivia and additional research by UNEP-WCMC.

The metadata directory still contains gaps, and additions or corrections are very welcome; please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. with your suggestions.

Access to this type of metadata is a first essential step to providing appropriate information to support decision making. We hope that it facilitates effective collaborations among stakeholders on important new analyses to help safeguard and enhance the ecosystem-derived benefits of REDD+.

01 October 2010

Methods for assessing and monitoring change in the ecosystem-derived benefits of afforestation, reforestation and forest restoration

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This report summarises the steps needed to design a system to assess and monitor change in ecosystem services resulting from afforestation, reforestation and forest restoration projects or programmes. Design of a monitoring scheme involves identifying how the results will be used, selecting appropriate indicators, defining a methodology for obtaining data and calculating indicators, and deciding how frequently monitoring will be undertaken. This report also refers to useful existing guidance on monitoring and indicators that will be of help in deciding what sort of monitoring to undertake and how to do so.

01 October 2010

Ecosystem services and biodiversity from new and restored forests: tool development

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This document, and the related Multiple Benefits Series 6 on Methods for assessing and monitoring change in the ecosystem-derived benefits of afforestation, reforestation and forest restoration have been produced to support Viet Nam in its goals of attaining multiple benefits from forest. This document provides a basis for estimating the probable impacts of different forest cover creation approaches on the ecosystem-derived benefits of biodiversity, water provision, soil conservation and non-timber forest products. The companion paper provides guidance on designing a monitoring system and selecting to provide direct evidence of impacts.

01 October 2010

Monitoring for REDD+: carbon stock change and multiple benefits

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This paper investigates the relationship and potential synergies between monitoring systems for carbon stock changes and multiple benefits from REDD+.

01 October 2010

Safeguarding and enhancing the ecosystem-derived benefits of REDD+

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This issues paper considers options to safeguard and enhance these benefits under a national REDD+ programme. It assesses the opportunities for and risks to these benefits during REDD+ preparation, design and implementation, measuring, reporting and verification. It focuses on those approaches to REDD+ for which there is scope to safeguard and/or enhance ecosystem-derived benefits, and which are included within the existing national strategies of UN-REDD Programme partner countries. It considers various tools and measures that are available to increase the opportunities for and decrease the risks to these benefits, and suggests some of the likely trade-offs between carbon, ecosystem-derived benefits and cost. Trade-offs may involve exchanging short-term use of resources for long-term sustainable use, or may involve a long-term prioritisation of one benefit over another.

01 October 2010

What are the ecosystem-derived benefits of REDD+ and why do they matter?

uploaded by Emily Dunning

The paper provides an analysis of the ecosystem-derived multiple benefits of REDD+.

The terminology around multiple benefits is not yet clear cut. Here, the different terms in use are reviewed and suggestions are made about how terms can be used in a consistent way.

The range of different ecosystem-derived benefits is surveyed and the most important ones identified. There is the risk of environmental harms as well as benefits from REDD+. Some of the benefits are closely related to each other, and tend to co-occur. Benefits are delivered at different scales; some are primarily local while others may be national or global. Different REDD+ activities may give rise to different benefits and risks.

Assessing the magnitude of the benefits from REDD+ is often not easy; nevertheless, in some cases it may be possible to provide an estimate of the economic value of the ecosystem-derived benefits. In all cases, the monitoring of benefits can play an important role.

A number of equity issues arise in connection with ecosystem-derived benefits which should be addressed in the implementation of REDD+.

01 October 2010

Multiple Benefits - Issues and Options for REDD

uploaded by Emily Dunning

This paper provides an overview of the issues surrounding and opportunities for achieving the ecosystem aspects of multiple benefits from Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD).

01 October 2010

Beyond Carbon: Ecosystem-based benefits of REDD+

uploaded by Emily Dunning
REDD+ can bring about benefits in addition to the primary benefit of carbon storage. Through careful planning and implementation, additional benefits from biodiversity and ecosystem services can be secured. The decisions made and approaches adopted for different REDD+ activities will affect the type, extent and quality of biodiversity and ecosystem services that are delivered. The UN-REDD Programme is helping countries to integrate multiple benefits into their REDD+ planning.
11 July 2010

REDD+ in dryland forests- IIED - July 2010

uploaded by Estelle Fach

Issues and prospects for pro-poor REDD in the miombo woodlands of southern Africa, including in Zambia.


Implementing REDD+ programs involves providing sufficient incentives to land users and requires a supportive policy, legal and institutional environment. Community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) in the miombo ecoregion of east and southern Africa has addressed these issues in its evolution. This has seen the evolution of policy, legal and institutional mechanisms that attach market value to commonly controlled resources and facilitate market-led conservation, leading to some successful sustainable management of natural resources. The lessons from CBNRM in the miombo ecoregion provide a basis on which REDD+ in dry-land forests can build. Three country case studies covering Zambia, Mozambique and Namibia were used to draw lessons from CBNRM that could inform pro-poor REDD as well as providing the likely opportunity costs of REDD+. The study draws on well - documented experiences of CBNRM and wide consultations undertaken by country experts during the study.

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